Linguistics 20, "Introduction to
Linguistics 103, "Introduction to General
Linguistics 120A, "Phonology I"
Linguistics 191 "Metrics" (undergraduate)
Linguistics 201A, "Phonological Theory II"
Linguistics 205, "Morphology" (graduate, last taught
- Linguistics 219 "Phonological Theory III" (graduate, last taught Spring 2018)
Linguistics 251, "Phonotactics", (2006, with
Linguistics 251, "Metrics" (2008)
Linguistics 251, "Vowel Harmony" (2010, 2019)
Linguistics 251, "The Phonology of
Linguistics 251, "Variation in Phonology" (2013, with
- Linguistics 251, "Metrics" (2015, with Russell Schuh)
Summary of current work
In our current research, my collaborators and I approach
a single phenomenon with three methods in parallel: (i) data analysis in the classical tradition of generative
grammar, using rules and constraints; (ii)
experimentation, to assess productivity and generality
of phonological knowledge, (iii) modeling:
machine-implemented algorithms, incorporating elements of phonological theory,
learn the grammar through examination of a data corpus. The idea is to study not
just the data pattern of the language, but to determine more precisely what the
native speaker knows and demonstrate through modeling how she might come to know
it. These goals have always been central to generative linguistics; advances in
both theory and technology now help us address them more directly.
Here is a brief blurb on my work in (poetric) metrics.
My CV can be accessed here.
(2009) Introductory Phonology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
(2004) Phonetically-Based Phonology, edited
Donca Steriade, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
(1995) Metrical Stress Theory: Principles and Case Studies, University of Chicago Press.
(1985) A Metrical Theory of Stress Rules. New York: Garland.
- (ms.) Bruce Hayes and Jinyoung Jo, Balinese stem phonotactics and the subregularity hypothesis. Supplemental materials.
- (ms.) Canaan Breiss and Bruce Hayes, Phonological markedness effects in sentence formation. To appear in Language. Supplemental materials
- (2019) Bruce Hayes and Russell Schuh. Metrical structure and sung rhythm of the Hausa rajaz. Language 95: e253-e299 (Phonological Analysis). Supplemental materials
- (2018) An obituary of Russell Schuh. Brill’s Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 10:1-4.
- (2017) Bruce Hayes, Varieties of Noisy Harmonic Grammar. Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting in Phonology, USC. Version with 12 point font. Also: Supplementary materials
- (2017) Kie Zuraw and Bruce Hayes, Intersecting constraint families: an argument for Harmonic Grammar. Language 93: 497-548. Supplemental files.
- (2016) Laura McPherson and Bruce Hayes, Relating application frequency to morphological structure: the case of Tommo So vowel harmony. Phonology 33: 125–167. Supplementary materials.
- (2016) Comparative phonotactics. Proceedings of the 50th meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 265-285.
- (2015) Bruce Hayes and James White,
Saltation and the P-map. Phonology 32:267-302. Supplementary materials
- (2013) Bruce Hayes and James White,
Phonological naturalness and phonotactic learning.
Linguistic Inquiry 44:45-75. Supplementary
- (2012) Bruce Hayes, Colin Wilson, and Anne Shisko,
grammars for the metrics of Shakespeare and Milton. Language, Dec. 2012.
materials. [Winner of Best Paper in
- (2011) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes.
and learnability in phonology. In John Goldsmith, Jason Riggle,
and Alan Yu, eds. Handbook of Phonological Theory.
Blackwell/Wiley, pp. 661-690.
sonority-projection experiments: the role of phonotactic modeling.
Proceedings of the 2011 International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong
Kong, pp. 835-838.
(2011) Bruce Hayes and Claire Moore-Cantwell.
Manley Hopkins's sprung rhythm: corpus study and stochastic grammar
Phonology 28:235–282. Supplementary
(2011) Robert Daland, Bruce Hayes, James White, Marc Garellek, Andreas Davis,
and Ingrid Normann.
sonority projection effects. Phonology
28:197–234. 28: 197–234.
(2010) Review of
Fabb and Halle (2010) Meter in Poetry. Lingua 120:
(2009) Bruce Hayes, Kie Zuraw, Peter Siptar, and Zsuzsa Londe.
Natural and unnatural constraints
in Hungarian vowel harmony. Language 85: 822-863.
as constraint conflict. In Aroui, Jean-Louis and Andy Arleo, eds.
Towards a Typology of Poetic Forms. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 43-61.
and componentiality in metrics". In Sharon Inkelas and Kristin Hanson,
eds., The Nature of the Word. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp.
(2008) Bruce Hayes and Colin Wilson.
A maximum entropy model
of phonotactics and phonotactic learning. Linguistic Inquiry
(2006) Bruce Hayes and Zsuzsa Londe.
knowledge: the case of Hungarian vowel harmony".
(2006) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes.
with the Gradual Learning Algorithm: the problem of accidentally exceptionless
generalizations. In Gradience in Grammar: Generative
Perspectives, edited by Gisbert Fanselow, Caroline
Fery, Matthias Schlesewsky and Ralf Vogel. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
(2004) Hayes, Bruce, and Donca Steriade
"Introduction: The phonetic
basis of phonological markedness," in Hayes, Kirchner, and Steriade (eds.),
Phonetically-Based Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
acquisition in Optimality Theory: the early stages. In Kager,
Rene, Pater, Joe, and Zonneveld, Wim, (eds.), Fixing Priorities: Constraints
in Phonological Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
(2003) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes.
Rules vs. analogy in
English past tenses: a computational/experimental Study.
Phonetics-Phonology Interface: Comments on Clements & Osu, Solé,
Frota, and Chitoran et al.. About consonant clusters in Georgian.
From Carlos Gussenhoven and Natasha Warner, eds., Laboratory Phonology
7, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and
New York, pp. 449-454
(2002) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes.
English past tense intuitions with minimal generalization." In Mike Maxwell,
ed., Proceedings of the 2002 Workshop on Morphological Learning, Association of Computational Linguistics.
Philadelphia: Association for Computational Linguistics.
(2001) Paul Boersma and Bruce Hayes
"Empirical tests of the Gradual
Learning Algorithm", Linguistic Inquiry 32:45-86.
(2001) Adam Albright, Argelia Andrade, and Bruce Hayes
environments of Spanish diphthongization." UCLA Working Papers in
Linguistics 7 (Papers in Phonology 5), 117-151.
well-formedness in Optimality Theory". In Joost Dekkers, Frank
van der Leeuw and Jeroen van de Weijer, eds., Optimality Theory: Phonology,
Syntax, and Acquisition, Oxford University Press, pp. 88-120.
Phonology: The Role of Optimality Theory and Inductive Grounding" in
Michael Darnell, Edith Moravscik, Michael Noonan, Frederick Newmeyer, and
Kathleen Wheatly, eds., Functionalism and Formalism in Linguistics,
Volume I: General Papers, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp.
Restructuring in Yidiny and its Theoretical Consequences,
Preprint version. Published in Ben Hermans and Marc Oostendorp, eds.,
The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimality Theory, John
Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 175-205.
(1998) Bruce Hayes and Margaret MacEachern.
"Quatrain form in
English Folk Verse" Language64, 473-507.
(1996) Bruce Hayes and Abigail Kaun.
The role of phonological
phrasing in sung and chanted verse. The Linguistic Review 13,
(1996) Bruce Hayes and Margaret MacEachern.
there lines in English folk poetry". UCLA Working Papers in
Phonology 1, 125-142 (1996).
(1995) Bruce Hayes and Tanya Stivers
Phonetics of Post-Nasal Voicing" (ms., not published or peer-reviewed).
(1995) "On What
To Teach the Undergraduates: Some Changing Orthodoxies in Phonological
Theory." Preprint version. Published 1995 in Ik-Hwan Lee, ed.,
Linguistics in the Morning Calm 3, Hanshin, Seoul,
- (1995) "Weight of CVC can be determined by context." In Jennifer Cole and Charles Kisseberth, eds., Perspectives in Phonology, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford, CA, pp. 61-79.
in prosody: comments on the paper by Ladd," in Patricia Keating, ed.,
Papers in Laboratory Phonology III, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, pp. 64-75.
(1993) "Against movement: comments
on Liddell's article," in Geoffrey Coulter, ed., Current Issues in
ASL Phonology, Academic Press, San
Diego, CA, pp. 213-226.
(1992) "Comments on the paper
by Nolan," in Gerard J. Docherty and D. Robert Ladd, eds., Papers
in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segment, Prosody, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 280-286.
(1991) Bruce Hayes and Aditi Lahiri
phonology". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9: 47-96.
(1991) Bruce Hayes and Aditi Lahiri
specified intonation in English and Bengali" in Johan Sundberg, Lennart
Nord, and Rolf Carlson, eds., Music, Language, Speech, and Brain, Macmillan,
London, pp. 78-91.
phrasal phonology" in Sharon Inkelas and Draga Zec, eds., The
Syntax-Phonology Connection, Center for the Study
of Language and Information, Stanford, CA, and University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, pp. 85-108.
and coindexing," Phonology 7, 31-71.
(1989) Bruce Hayes and May Abad
"Reduplication and syllabification
in Ilokano" (1989) Lingua 77, 331-374.
(1989) "The Prosodic
Hierarchy in meter" in Paul Kiparsky and Gilbert Youmans, eds., Rhythm
and Meter, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp.
lengthening in moraic phonology". Linguistic Inquiry 20: 253-306 (1989).
(1988) Review of Leo
Wetzels and Engin Sezer, Studies in Compensatory Lengthening,
Linguistics 26, 167-173.
(1987) "A revised
parametric metrical theory," Proceedings of the Northeastern Linguistics
Society 17, Graduate Linguistics Student
Association, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 274-289.
as spreading in Toba Batak" Linguistic Inquiry
(1986) Review of Heinz Giegerich,
Metrical Phonology and Phonological Structure: German and English,
Journal of Linguistics 22, 229-235.
(1985) Bruce Hayes and Stanislaw Puppel,
"On the rhythm rule
in Polish," in Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., Advances
in Nonlinear Phonology, Foris Publications,
and trochaic rhythm in stress rules," in M. Niepokuj et al., eds.,
Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics
(1984) "The phonology
of rhythm in English" Linguistic Inquiry 15,
(1984) "The phonetics
and phonology of Russian voicing assimilation" in Mark Aronoff and Richard
T. Oehrle, eds., Language Sound Structure, MIT
Press, Cambridge, Mass., 318-328.
(1984) Review Article: D.
Attridge, The Rhythms of English Poetry, Language 60, 914-923.
(1983) "A grid-based
theory of English meter" Linguistic Inquiry 14, 357-393.
role of metrical trees in rhythmic adjustment," Proceedings of the
Thirteenth Meeting of the North Eastern Linguistic Society, University of Massachusetts Graduate
Linguistics Student Association, Amherst.
(1982) "Metrical structure
as the organizing principle of Yidiny phonology," in Harry van der Hulst
and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of Phonological Representations, Part
I, Foris Publications, Dordrecht.
and English stress," Linguistic Inquiry 13,
(1980) "Aklan stress: disjunctive
ordering or metrical feet?" Cahiers linguistiques d'Ottawa 9, Papers
from the Tenth Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, University of Ottawa.
rhythmic structure of Persian verse. Edebiyat
4, 193-242 (1979).
in K. Safir, ed., MIT Working Papers in Linguistics,
Vol. 1, 77-87.
stress feet in English," in K. Safir, ed., MIT Working Papers in
Linguistics, Vol. 1, pp. 88-94.
semantic nature of the Intervention Constraint. Linguistic
phrase extraposition," in J. Hankamer and J. Aissen, eds., Harvard
Studies in Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 2, pp. 221-241.
Talk handouts and slides
Handouts whose content is in the papers listed above are mostly not
included here. Some of these talks you can actually watch as
- (2019) Incorporating phonological and syntactic factors into sentence probability distributions,
poster presented by Tim Hunter, Canaan Breiss, and Bruce Hayes at the
2020 Annual Meeting in Phonology, Stony Brook University.
- (2019) Studying verbal art in linguistics: Meter and mimetic words in Dr. Seuss,
celebrating the inauguration of the Theresa A. and Henry P. Biggs
Centennial Term Chair in Linguistics, October 30, 2019. See also video; slides for Keating's introduction
- (2018) Some remarks on maxent grammars.
Talk given at the workshop at Stanford University, “Analyzing
Typological Structure: From Categorical to Probabilistic Phonology”
- (2018) Talk at 7th International Conference on Phonology and Morphonology, Allomorph discovery as a basis for learning alternations
- (2015) Plenary talk at the Linguistic Society of America, 'Phonological
acquisition is not always accurate': extending the Kiparskyan
- (2013) M90 (academic birthday party for my teacher Morris Halle). Milton, maxent, and the Russian method. [video]
- (2013) Whatmough Lecture, Harvard University. Saltation in phonology. Video: 1, 2.
Superceded by written version above.
- (2012) Conference on Laboratory Phonology, Stuttgart.
The role of computational
modeling in the study of sound structure.
- (2011) MIT Linguistics 50th birthday celebration. Some comments on the study of stress. [video]
(2011) Conference on Natural Language Learning, Portland.
Computational linguistics for studying
language in people: principles, applications and research problems
(2010) Cognitive Science Society, Portland (session in honor of Rumelhart
Prize winner Jaye McClelland):
Linguistics: Some Examples from Phonology. [video]
(2008) Conference: Music, Language, and Mind, Tufts University.
"Weighting conflicting constraints:
a maxent approach to textsetting."
(2007) NELS 38, Ottawa:
"New methods for studying UG
(2007) Stanford Gradience Workshop at LSA:
of gradience in phonology: what are the right tools?"
(2005) Manchester Phonology Conference:
"These are a few of my favorite
facts: Advances in phonology from new data sources"
- (2000) Johns Hopkins University: "A Phonologist's View of the Past Tense Controversy". [video]. Superceded by my papers with Adam
Albright, downloadable above.
(1998) Stanford University:
“On the Richness of Paradigms,
and the Insufficiency of Underlying Representations in Accounting for
- (1998) UC Berkeley:
Research Strategies for Feature Theory"