||Bruce P. Hayes
Theresa M. and Henry P. Biggs Centennial Term Chair in
Linguistics [what's this?]
Dept. of Linguistics
Los Angeles CA 90095-1543
Office hours for Fall 2022: Monday 1-12,
My office is 2101G
Campbell Hall. I can also Zoom with you with advance notice.
Visit the Gallery of Wug-Shaped
Curves. These are data plots that look like wugs, based on
data from several fields of linguistics. Paper
is now out in Annual Review of Linguistics.
- Linguistics 20, "Introduction to
- Linguistics 103, "Introduction to
- Linguistics 120A, "Phonology I"
- Linguistics 191 "Metrics"
- Linguistics 201A, "Phonological Theory
205, "Morphology" (graduate, last taught Spring 2011)
- Linguistics 219 "Phonological Theory III"
(graduate, last taught Spring 2020)
251, "Phonotactics", (2006, with Colin
- Linguistics 251, "Metrics" (2008)
- Linguistics 251, "Vowel
Harmony" (2010, 2019)
- Linguistics 251, "The Phonology
of English" (2011)
251, "Variation in Phonology" (2013, with Kie
- Linguistics 251,
"Metrics" (2015, with Russell
Summary of current work
In our current research, my collaborators and I approach a single
phenomenon with three methods in parallel: (i) data analysis in
the classical tradition of generative grammar, using rules and
constraints; (ii) experimentation, to assess productivity and
generality of phonological knowledge, (iii) modeling:
machine-implemented algorithms, incorporating elements of phonological
theory, learn the grammar through examination of a data corpus. The idea
is to study not just the data pattern of the language, but to determine
more precisely what the native speaker knows and demonstrate through
modeling how she might come to know it. These goals have always been
central to generative linguistics; advances in both theory and technology
now help us address them more directly.
On the more formal side, I'm involved in efforts to assess models of
variation in language by looking at mathematical properties of the
patterns they generate. To my knowledge, these patterns represent a
(possible) class of linguistic universals not previously studied. In the
papers listed below, see Hayes (2022), Zuraw and Hayes (2017), and
I also work from time to time on the analysis of poetic meter, where many
of the tools of formal phonology have proven helpful. Here is a brief summary of this work.
My CV can be accessed here.
Currently active projects: (a) modeling how infants learn English
suffixes without knowing English; with Canaan
Sundara, and Mark
Johnson. (b) learning underlying representations, with a blend of
math and phonological theory; with Yang
Wang. (c) Simultaneous learning of syntax and phrasally-active
phonological constraints, with Tim
Hunter and Canaan Breiss.
(d) A squib with Aaron Kaplan
pointing out some intriguing quirks of Noisy Harmonic Grammar; (e) A guide
for users to MaxEnt phonology, with a spreadsheet emphasis.
- (2009) Introductory Phonology. Malden, MA:
- (2004) Phonetically-Based Phonology,
edited with Robert
Kirchner and Donca
Steriade, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- (1995) Metrical Stress Theory: Principles and Case Studies,
University of Chicago Press.
- (1985) A Metrical Theory of Stress Rules. New York:
- (2022) The Coinages
in Seuss. English Language and Linguistics It's
about phonesthemes. Supplemental
- (2022) Deriving
the Wug-shaped curve: A criterion for assessing formal theories of
linguistic variation. Link is to a short version, Annual Review of Linguistics
8:474-494. There is also an informal longer
version that goes into more detail. The "Gallery of Wug-Shaped
Curves" mentioned in the paper is here.
- (2020, ms.) Bruce Hayes and Jinyoung Jo, Balinese
stem phonotactics and the subregularity hypothesis. Supplemental
- (2020) Canaan Breiss and Bruce Hayes, Phonological
markedness effects in sentence formation. Language
video (LSA series, "Meet the authors")
- (2019) Bruce Hayes and Russell Schuh. Metrical
structure and sung rhythm of the Hausa rajaz. Language
(Phonological Analysis). Supplemental
- (2018) An
obituary of Russell Schuh. Brill’s
Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 10:1-4.
- (2017) Bruce Hayes, Varieties
of Noisy Harmonic Grammar. Proceedings of the 2016 Annual
Meeting in Phonology, USC. Version
with 12 point font. Also: Supplementary
- (2017) Kie Zuraw and Bruce Hayes, Intersecting
constraint families: an argument for Harmonic Grammar. Language
93: 497-548. Supplemental
- (2016) Laura McPherson and Bruce Hayes, Relating
application frequency to morphological structure: the case of Tommo So
vowel harmony. Phonology
33: 125–167. Supplementary
- (2016) Comparative
of the 50th meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 265-285.
- (2015) Bruce Hayes and James
and the P-map. Phonology 32:267-302.
materials, List of saltations
noticed since publication.
- (2013) Bruce Hayes and James White, Phonological
naturalness and phonotactic learning. Linguistic Inquiry
- (2012) Bruce Hayes, Colin Wilson, and Anne Shisko, Maxent
grammars for the metrics of Shakespeare and Milton. Language,
Dec. 2012. Supplementary
materials. [Winner of Best
Paper in Volume Award]
- (2011) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes. Learning
and learnability in phonology. In John Goldsmith, Jason
Riggle, and Alan Yu, eds. Handbook of Phonological Theory.
Blackwell/Wiley, pp. 661-690.
- (2011) Interpreting
sonority-projection experiments: the role of phonotactic
modeling. Proceedings of the 2011 International Congress of
Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong, pp. 835-838.
- (2011) Bruce Hayes and Claire Moore-Cantwell. Gerard
Manley Hopkins's sprung rhythm: corpus study and stochastic grammar
Phonology 28:235–282. Supplementary
- (2011) Robert Daland, Bruce Hayes, James White, Marc Garellek,
Andreas Davis, and Ingrid Normann. Explaining
sonority projection effects. Phonology 28:197–234. 28:
- (2010) Review
of Fabb and Halle (2010) Meter in Poetry. Lingua
120: 2515–2521. Supplementary
- (2009) Bruce Hayes, Kie Zuraw, Peter Siptar, and Zsuzsa Londe. Natural
and unnatural constraints in Hungarian vowel harmony. Language
85: 822-863. Supplementary
- (2009) Textsetting
as constraint conflict. In Aroui, Jean-Louis and Andy Arleo,
eds. Towards a Typology of Poetic Forms. Amsterdam: John
Benjamins, pp. 43-61. Supplementary
- (2009) "Faithfulness
and componentiality in metrics". In Sharon Inkelas and Kristin
Hanson, eds., The Nature of the Word. MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, pp. 113-148. Supplementary
- (2008) Bruce Hayes and Colin Wilson. A
maximum entropy model of phonotactics and phonotactic learning.
Linguistic Inquiry 39, 379-440. Supplementary
- (2006) Bruce Hayes and Zsuzsa Londe. "Stochastic
phonological knowledge: the case of Hungarian vowel harmony".
Phonology 23:59-104. Supplementary
- (2006) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes. Modeling
productivity with the Gradual Learning Algorithm: the problem of
accidentally exceptionless generalizations. In Gradience
in Grammar: Generative Perspectives, edited by Gisbert Fanselow,
Caroline Fery, Matthias Schlesewsky and Ralf Vogel. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, pp. 185-204.
- (2004) Hayes, Bruce, and Donca Steriade "Introduction:
The phonetic basis of phonological markedness," in Hayes,
Kirchner, and Steriade (eds.), Phonetically-Based Phonology.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-32. Supplementary
- (2004) "Phonological
acquisition in Optimality Theory: the early stages.
In Kager, Rene, Pater, Joe, and Zonneveld, Wim, (eds.), Fixing
Priorities: Constraints in Phonological Acquisition. Cambridge
University Press. Supplementary
- (2003) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes. Rules
vs. analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental
Study. Cognition 90:119-161. Supplementary
- (2002) The
Phonetics-Phonology Interface: Comments on Clements & Osu, Solé,
Frota, and Chitoran et al.. About consonant clusters in
Georgian. From Carlos Gussenhoven and Natasha Warner, eds., Laboratory
Phonology 7, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, pp. 449-454
- (2002) Adam Albright and Bruce Hayes. Modeling
English past tense intuitions with minimal generalization." In
Mike Maxwell, ed., Proceedings of the 2002 Workshop on Morphological
Learning, Association of Computational Linguistics. Philadelphia:
Association for Computational Linguistics.
- (2001) Paul Boersma and Bruce Hayes "Empirical
tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm", Linguistic Inquiry 32:45-86.
- (2001) Adam Albright, Argelia Andrade, and Bruce Hayes "Segmental
environments of Spanish diphthongization." UCLA Working Papers
in Linguistics 7 (Papers in Phonology 5), 117-151. Supplementary
- (2000) "Gradient
well-formedness in Optimality Theory". In Joost Dekkers,
Frank van der Leeuw and Jeroen van de Weijer, eds., Optimality
Theory: Phonology, Syntax, and Acquisition, Oxford University
Press, pp. 88-120. "Supplementary
- (1999) "Phonetically-Driven
Phonology: The Role of Optimality Theory and Inductive Grounding"
in Michael Darnell, Edith Moravscik, Michael Noonan, Frederick Newmeyer,
and Kathleen Wheatly, eds., Functionalism and Formalism in
Linguistics, Volume I: General Papers, John Benjamins, Amsterdam,
pp. 243-285. Supplementary
- (1999) Phonological
Restructuring in Yidiny and its Theoretical
Consequences, Preprint version. Published in Ben Hermans and
Marc Oostendorp, eds., The Derivational Residue in Phonological
Optimality Theory, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 175-205. Supplementary
- (1998) Bruce Hayes and Margaret MacEachern. "Quatrain
form in English Folk Verse" Language64, 473-507. Supplementary
- (1996) Bruce Hayes and Abigail Kaun. The
role of phonological phrasing in sung and chanted verse. The
Linguistic Review 13, 243-303. Supplementary
- (1996) Bruce Hayes and Margaret MacEachern. "Are
there lines in English folk poetry". UCLA Working Papers in
Phonology 1, 125-142 (1996). Supplementary
- (1995) Bruce Hayes and Tanya Stivers "The
Phonetics of Post-Nasal Voicing" (ms., not published or
- (1995) "On
What To Teach the Undergraduates: Some Changing Orthodoxies in
Phonological Theory." Preprint version. Published 1995 in
Ik-Hwan Lee, ed., Linguistics in the Morning Calm 3, Hanshin,
Seoul, pp. 59-77.
- (1995) "Weight
of CVC can be determined by context." In Jennifer Cole and Charles
Kisseberth, eds., Perspectives in
Phonology, Center for the Study of Language and Information,
Stanford, CA, pp. 61-79.
- (1994) "'Gesture'
in prosody: comments on the paper by Ladd," in Patricia Keating,
ed., Papers in Laboratory Phonology III, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, pp. 64-75.
- (1993) "Against
movement: comments on Liddell's article," in Geoffrey Coulter,
ed., Current Issues in ASL Phonology, Academic Press, San Diego,
CA, pp. 213-226.
- (1992) "Comments on the
paper by Nolan," in Gerard J. Docherty and D. Robert Ladd, eds., Papers
in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segment, Prosody, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, pp. 280-286.
- (1991) Bruce Hayes and Aditi Lahiri "Bengali
intonational phonology". Natural Language and Linguistic
Theory 9: 47-96. Supplementary
- (1991) Bruce Hayes and Aditi Lahiri "Durationally
specified intonation in English and Bengali" in Johan Sundberg,
Lennart Nord, and Rolf Carlson, eds., Music, Language, Speech, and
Brain, Macmillan, London, pp. 78-91.
- (1990) "Precompiled
phrasal phonology" in Sharon Inkelas and Draga Zec, eds., The
Syntax-Phonology Connection, Center for the Study of Language and
Information, Stanford, CA, and University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.
- (1990) "Diphthongization
and coindexing," Phonology 7, 31-71.
- (1989) Bruce Hayes and May Abad "Reduplication
and syllabification in Ilokano" (1989) Lingua 77, 331-374.
- (1989) "The
Prosodic Hierarchy in meter" in Paul Kiparsky and Gilbert Youmans,
eds., Rhythm and Meter, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 201-260
- (1989) "Compensatory
lengthening in moraic phonology". Linguistic Inquiry 20:
- (1988) Review
of Leo Wetzels and Engin Sezer, Studies in Compensatory
Lengthening, Linguistics 26, 167-173.
- (1987) "A
revised parametric metrical theory," Proceedings of the
Northeastern Linguistics Society 17, Graduate Linguistics Student
Association, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 274-289.
- (1986) "Assimilation
as spreading in Toba Batak" Linguistic Inquiry 17:
- (1986) Review of
Heinz Giegerich, Metrical Phonology and Phonological Structure:
German and English, Journal of Linguistics 22,
- (1985) Bruce Hayes and Stanislaw Puppel, "On
the rhythm rule in Polish," in Harry van der Hulst and Norval
Smith, eds., Advances in Nonlinear Phonology, Foris
Publications, Dordrecht, 59-81.
- (1985) "Iambic
and trochaic rhythm in stress rules," in M. Niepokuj et al., eds.,
Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley
Linguistics Society, 429-446.
- (1984) "The
phonology of rhythm in English" Linguistic Inquiry 15,
- (1984) "The
phonetics and phonology of Russian voicing assimilation" in Mark
Aronoff and Richard T. Oehrle, eds., Language Sound Structure,
MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 318-328.
- (1984) Review
Article: D. Attridge, The Rhythms of English Poetry, Language
- (1983) "A
grid-based theory of English meter" Linguistic Inquiry 14,
- (1983) "The
role of metrical trees in rhythmic adjustment," Proceedings of
the Thirteenth Meeting of the North Eastern Linguistic Society,
University of Massachusetts Graduate Linguistics Student Association,
- (1982) "Metrical
structure as the organizing principle of Yidiny phonology," in
Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of
Phonological Representations, Part I, Foris Publications,
- (1982) "Extrametricality
and English stress," Linguistic Inquiry 13, 227-276.
- (1980) "Aklan stress:
disjunctive ordering or metrical feet?" Cahiers linguistiques
d'Ottawa 9, Papers from the Tenth Meeting of the North East Linguistic
Society, University of Ottawa.
- (1979) The
rhythmic structure of Persian verse. Edebiyat 4, 193-242
- (1979) "Extrametricality,"
in K. Safir, ed., MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 1,
- (1979) "Ternary
stress feet in English," in K. Safir, ed., MIT Working Papers
in Linguistics, Vol. 1, pp. 88-94.
- (1976) The
semantic nature of the Intervention Constraint. Linguistic
- (1976) "Prepositional
phrase extraposition," in J. Hankamer and J. Aissen, eds., Harvard
Studies in Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 2, pp. 221-241.
handouts and slides
Handouts whose content is in the papers listed above are mostly not
included here. Some of these talks you can watch as web-posted
- (2020) "Modeling
failure in morphophonological learning", invited talk given at the
SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology,
and Morphology. Video.
- (2019) Incorporating
phonological and syntactic factors into sentence probability
distributions, poster presented by Tim Hunter, Canaan Breiss, and
Bruce Hayes at the 2020 Annual Meeting in Phonology, Stony Brook
- (2019) Studying verbal
art in linguistics: Meter and mimetic words in Dr. Seuss,
celebrating the inauguration of the Theresa A. and Henry P. Biggs
Centennial Term Chair in Linguistics, October 30, 2019. Here are links
Chair Keating's introduction.
- (2018) Some
remarks on maxent grammars. Talk given at the workshop at Stanford
University, “Analyzing Typological Structure: From Categorical to
- (2018) Talk at 7th International Conference on Phonology and
discovery as a basis for learning alternations
- (2015) Plenary talk at the Linguistic Society of America, 'Phonological
acquisition is not always accurate': extending the Kiparskyan
- (2013) M90 (academic birthday party for my teacher Morris
Halle). Milton, maxent,
and the Russian method. [video]
- (2013) Whatmough Lecture, Harvard University. Saltation
in phonology. Video: 1,
Superceded by written version above.
- (2012) Conference on Laboratory Phonology, Stuttgart. The
role of computational modeling in the study of sound structure.
- (2011) MIT Linguistics 50th birthday celebration. Some
comments on the study of stress. [video]
- (2011) Conference on Natural Language Learning, Portland. Computational
linguistics for studying language in people: principles, applications
and research problems
- (2010) Cognitive Science Society, Portland (session in honor of
Rumelhart Prize winner Jaye McClelland): Learning-Theoretic
Linguistics: Some Examples from Phonology. [video]
- (2008) Conference: Music, Language, and Mind, Tufts University.
constraints: a maxent approach to textsetting."
- (2007) NELS 38, Ottawa: "New
methods for studying UG in phonology"
- (2007) Stanford Gradience Workshop at LSA: "The
analysis of gradience in phonology: what are the right tools?"
- (2005) Manchester Phonology Conference: "These
are a few of my favorite facts: Advances in phonology from new
- (2000) Johns Hopkins University: "A
Phonologist's View of the Past Tense Controversy". [video].
Superceded by my papers with Adam Albright, downloadable above.
- (1998) Stanford University: “On
the Richness of Paradigms, and the Insufficiency of Underlying
Representations in Accounting for them”
- (1998) UC Berkeley: "Some
Research Strategies for Feature Theory"